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Fluidized Catalytic Cracker Unit

FCCU Process Dynamics
Solid Particle Bed Fluidization
Process Control

Sub Topics
FCCU Catalyst Fluidization
Catalyst Flow & Reactor Operation

Description:Fluidized Catalytic Cracker Units are common unit operations in oil refineries. The FCCU Trainer is a reduced scale plant that mimics bed fluidization, catalyst circulation and regeneration.

Note that since FCCU operating conditions include high temperatures and/or pressures, no substantial chemical reactions take place in this unit. It is designed to mimic the process at conditions of temperature and pressure lower than actual.

Working fluids are air, CO2 and water. Visualization of the catalyst material uses small diameter spherical glass beads and a coloured desiccant to mimic the catalyst bed. Catalyst degradation is mimicked by a colour change of the desiccant beads in the reactor and is reverses during regeneration. CO2 is used as a tracer compound to show the separation of flow in the reactor and regeneration sections.

The process has instrumentation to provide for reactant flow rate control, product gas analysis, catalyst level control, temperature indication and control and differential pressure indication. The entire trainer is controlled from a DCS computer interface with purpose designed software and control configuration.

This gives the student the opportunity to gain operating experience focusing on both the process and on control strategy.

Equipment Specification Highlights:

Much of the process is fabricated of industrial glass, with custom fabricated SS sections
  • Continuous up-flow reactor (glass
  • Glass disengaging vessels
  • Glass piping
  • Stainless stell vessel flanges and custom fittinggs (EG: vessel bottoms and transition pieces)
  • Flow measurement of reactant streams (CO2 and air)
  • Analysis of CO2 in product stream
  • Thermocouple temperature measurement
  • Control Cabinet with:
    • Power supply, switching, transformer and controls
    • DCS or PLC with I/O cards
    • Pneumatic operated control valves
    • Dedicated computer control station
    • Purpose-programmed software configuration and computer/operator interface
    • Time to reach steady state after a reasonable step change – less than 20 minutes
    • Complete unit mounted on a stainless steel frame
    • Approximate overall dimensions – 3300x920x2650 mm high (130” wide x 36” deep x 104” high)
    • Optional self-contained with dedicated air compressor, receiver and drier is available
Electrical power (other world voltages – please specify)
Single phase 120VAC or 240 VAC
208/240 VAC 3 phase
Instrument Air

Note: A complete teaching system is included with student exercises, instructors’ manual, technical and maintenance manuals.
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